### Implementing graph to tree conversion using Haskell

I began to become quite enamored with Haskell recently. At the very least, even if you can't use it on your current projects - because of the boss, because of legacy code, or because you just can't understand it well enough - you can always use it as an endless source of brain-teasers and puzzles.

Also, since I'm recently switched to XMonad, at least some knowledge of haskell is a must. By the way, I'm extremely happy with XMonad, but that is a theme for a separate blog post :)

Currently, I'm exploring various typeclasses (State, Reader, Arrow, etc) and sometimes try to code some small snippets using them. For example, to practice using State monad, I implemented a method to extract a tree from graph using DFS. Obviously, in such operation you need to maintain set of visited nodes somewhere, thus State seems to be a good fit. Here's the code in Haskell, and the same code in Scala (written in more "traditional" style):
import qualified Data.Map as Map
import qualified Data.Set as Set
import Data.List
import Text.Regex
import Control.Applicative

-- some setup for the types
type Graph a = Map.Map a [a]
data Tree a = Tree
{ root :: a
, children :: [Tree a]
} deriving (Eq, Ord)
instance (Show a) => (Show (Tree a)) where
show tree =
show (root tree)
++
concatMap ("\n"++)
(map (intercalate "\n" . map ("  " ++) . splitRegex (mkRegex "\n") . show) (children tree))

toTree :: (Ord a) => Graph a -> a -> State (Set.Set a) (Tree a)
toTree graph node = do
visited <- get
(Tree node . reverse) <$> foldl (\siblingTrees child -> siblingTrees >>= \strs -> (:strs) <$> toTree graph child)
(return [] <* modify (Set.insert node))
(filter (Set.notMember visited) $Map.findWithDefault [] node graph) mapFst :: (a -> b) -> (a, c) -> (b, c) mapFst fn (a, c) = (fn a, c) mapSnd :: (b -> c) -> (a, b) -> (a, c) mapSnd fn (a, b) = (a, fn b) exampleGraph :: Map.Map String [String] exampleGraph = Map.fromList [ ("tree", ["branch"]) , ("branch", ["apple", "banana"]) , ("apple", ["tree"]) ] main :: IO () main = print$ evalState (toTree exampleGraph "tree") Set.empty

case class Tree[A](root: A, children: List[Tree[A]])

def toTree[A](root: A, graph: Map[A, List[A]]): Tree[A] = {
def visit(node: A, graph: Map[A, List[A]], visited: Set[A]): (Tree[A], Set[A]) = {
graph.get(node) match {
case None => (Tree(node, Nil), visited + node)
case Some(children) =>
val (childTrees, newVisited) =
children.filterNot(visited)
.foldLeft((List.empty[Tree[A]], visited + node)){ case ((siblingTrees, visitedSoFar), child) =>
val (childTree, newVisited) = visit(child, graph, visitedSoFar)
(childTree :: siblingTrees, newVisited)
}
(Tree(node, childTrees.reverse), newVisited)
}
}
visit(root, graph, Set())._1
}

Note that scala version is almost twice as long (if we don't look at all the setup code from haskell version).

As a side note: if you need to quickly understand what Arrow typeclass means, I definitely recommend A Brutal Introduction to Arrows by Christopher Lane Hinson.